Text Book of Clinical Veterinary Medicine
By Amalendu Chakrabarti, Published: 2017, FileType: PDF
Foot and Mouth disease is an acute febrile highly contagious disease of cloven footed animals. This characterized by vesicular eruptions in the epithelium of buccal cavity, tongue, nares, muzzle, feet, teats and udder. Lesions may also appear in the rumen pillars. In calves, there is focal degeneration of cardiac and skeletal muscles which often lead to death.
The disease imposed considerable economic stress on the cattle rearers due to reduction of milk, meat and working capabilities of dairy and draught animals respectively. The losses inflicted are estimated to be not less than 25 millions annually (Dacia and Dhanda, 1951). The loss through milk is valued at 14 million per year (Minett, 1948, Mullick, 1949). Besides, there is appreciable expenses in the control and immunization programmers. It causes the most serious losses in cattle and buffalo. Animal Reproduction in Veterinary Medicine
Distribution • The disease was first recorded in 1544 in Europe. Since then the disease is recorded from all the countries of the Tropical regions. Intensive ‘eradication ‘campaigns have drastically curbed down the prevalence of the disease to a significant level in many countries of the world. The disease is enzootic in South America, Central Europe and certain African countries notably in Ethiopia and Tanzania. The disease is not present in North America, United Kingdom, rest of Europe, Australia and New Zealand. United States is free from the disease since 1989. In Asia, the disease is widely prevalent and has a high level in India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Nepal. There is reduced incidence in Bangladesh and Pakistan due to adoption of eradication campaign. The disease in moderate level is recorded in China, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Hong Kong. The disease is enzootic in some parts of Portugal and Spain.
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