Hello everyone, I hope you all are fine, today we will discuss Important nutrition terms used in animal feeding. Before starting I want to ask What is Nutrition? Are Nutrition and nutrients are same? so let’s begin our discussion;
Nutrition Terms Used In Animal Feed
What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the branch of science which deals with the four major processes including procurement, ingestion, digestion, and metabolism.
Procurement means the purchase of anything from the market. Ingestion is taking of food. Digestion is a complex process, it is the breakdown of complex substances into simple substances by chemical reactions in simple stomach animals and in ruminants digestion takes place in rumen and abomasum, in rumen digestion take place with the help of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi.
Are Digestion and Metabolism the same?
No digestion and metabolism are two different terms digestion is the breakdown of complex substances while metabolism is the utilization of nutrients by body organs after absorption.
some important nutritional terms are given below;
1- Nutrition: The act of nourishment or being nourished is called Nutrition.
2- Ingredient: Ingredient is the part of feed like corn and soybean are two ingredients.
3- Nutrient: Nutrient is the part of ingredients like Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water.
4- Ration: It is the allowance offered to animals during a period of 24 hours.
5- Food: It is any edible substance used for consumption.
6- Feed: It is anything that is offered for consumption.
7- Concentrate: Feedstuff high in energy and low in fiber content, these are further divided into energy and protein concentrates.
8- Forages: Plants or plant part grazed by domestic animals. Forage may be fresh, dry or ensiled.
9- Roughage: Feed high in fiber greater than 18 percent fiber and low in energy, it must be bulky and coarse.
10- Dry matter (DM): Ingredient or feed part left after all moisture is removed.
11- Crude Protein (CP): Total protein content of feed or ingredient including True proteins and non Protein nitrogen. CP is determined by estimating the total nitrogen content and multiplying it with 3.25
12- True Protein (TP): It includes nitrogen from the protein source only not Npn.
13: Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN): It includes nitrogen from non-protein sources like Urea, nitrate, nitrite, etc.
14- Gross Energy (GE): It is the total amount of energy present in the feed. Calculated in the laboratory by the bomb calorimeter.
15- Digestible Energy (DE): Gross energy of the feed – Energy lost in feces.
16- Net Energy (NE): Energy Necessary for growth, maintenance, and functioning of body. It is calculated by the Gross energy of the feed – Energy lost in feces, urine, gases, and heat.
17- Probiotic: These are directly fed microbes.
18- Prebiotic: Indigestible feed ingredient that promotes the growth of bacteria in rumen and colon.
19- TDN: Energy value of feedstuff is called total digestible nutrient.
20- Ether Extract (EE): It represents the fat contents of the feed.
21- Crude fiber (CF): it represents the fiber content of the feed.
22- Neutral detergent fiber(NDF): It contains the fiber content including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. cellulose and hemicellulose are digestible while lignin is indigestible.
23- Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF): It contains fiber content cellulose and lignin while hemicellulose is absent.
24- NFE: Nitrogen free extract
25- NFC: Non-fibrous carbohydrates.
26- NRC: National Research Council
27- Micro-minerals: Minerals required by the animal body in smaller amounts like zinc, selenium.
28- Macro-minerals: Minerals required by the animal in larger amounts like calcium, magnesium.
29- Feed Efficiency: The ratio of feed consumed divided by weight gain.
30- FCR: The ratio of weight gain divided by feed consumed is called the feed conversion ratio.